Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Most children, adolescents and young adults have at least once argued with authority figures, refused to comply with a rule or request, or annoyed someone on purpose and blamed the other person for their behaviour. However, for these individuals it is not their normal pattern of behaviour. These behaviours may be in response to overwhelming stresses in their lives or a developmental phase they are going through. Hence, this negative behaviour pattern is generally short-lived and tends to disappear as the individual adjusts to the new circumstance or matures. However, for individuals with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) this is not the case.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) [American Psychiatric Publishing (APA), 2013], is a handbook that is used by professionals around the world to diagnose mental disorders. The DSM–5 describes ODD as a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/deﬁant behaviours, or vindictiveness toward sauthority ﬁgures. The first symptoms of ODD usually appear during the preschool years and rarely later than early adolescence.
Causes of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The exact cause of ODD is currently unknown, rather the interaction between the risk factors may contribute to its development. They include:
Genetic factors –A predisposition to ODD is inherited in families with a history of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, or mood disorders such as depression or bipolar disorder.
Physiological factors - Abnormal functioning of certain types of brain chemicals or neurotransmitters lead to abnormalities in brain functioning.
Temperamental factors – The child has a difficult temperament (e.g. poor frustration tolerance, intense and high reactive responding and difficulty being soothed).
Environmental factors -The influence of the family is a strong risk factor for many individuals with ODD. Some of the family level risk factors include:
- Parental lack of supervision
- Parental rejection and neglect
- Parental discipline is too harsh or too relaxed or inconsistent
- Parental inconsistent child rearing practices
- Parental criminality
- Parental disharmony
- Lack of parental monitoring
- Parents with a mental health problem
- Parents with a substance abuse problems
- Parents involved in criminal behaviour
- Individual has been physically or sexually abused,
- Individual lives in institutionalised care
- Individual has frequent changes of caregivers
- Individual is part of a large family
Emotional and behavioural difficulties associated with symptoms associated with symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The individual with ODD may exhibit some, or all of following:
- Easily loses his or her temper.
- Easily annoyed by others.
- Angry and resentful.
- Argues with adults.
- Deliberately defies or refuses to comply with requests from adult’s requests or rules.
- Deliberately annoys others.
- Blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehaviour.
- Is spiteful or vindictive.
Behaviour Zen: A transformative journey
Supporting individuals with ODD who exhibit challenging emotional and behavioural difficulties is an ever changing journey that brings new challenges and demands at different times. There are no quick fixes or magical solutions that will permanently change things overnight. Hence, the Behaviour Zen journey is an ongoing and continuous cycle of three stages: Assess – Manage – Prevent.
To learn more please refer to: Bhargava, D. (2016). Behaviour Zen and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Transformative Journey. Perth, WA: Behaviour Zen Company
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.